is a country in Central America
bordered by Mexico
to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize
to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras
to the east and El Salvador
to the southeast. With an estimated population of around 15.8 million, it is the most populous state in Central America. A representative democracy
, Guatemala's capital and largest city is Nueva Guatemala de la Asunción, also known as Guatemala City
The territory of modern Guatemala once formed the core of the Mayan civilization, which extended across Mesoamerica. Most of the country was conquered by the Spanish in the 16th century, becoming part of the viceroyalty of New Spain. Guatemala attained independence in 1821 as part of the Federal Republic of Central America, which dissolved in 1841.